• Yusmani Prayogo Balai Penelitian Tanaman Aneka Kacang dan UmbiJln. Raya Kendalpayak, KM 08. PO BOX 66 Malang, 65101




B. tabaci, L. lecanii, predator, soybean, time application


Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi Lecanicillium lecanii  to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Soybean. Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important pests on soybean, because in addition to direct damage also as vectors of viruses and stimulated the growth of sooty mold. The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi Lecanicillium lecanii to control B. tabaci carried out at Muneng  field research station of  Probolinggo in June until September 2012. Research using a split plot design, the main plot is two soybean varieties, namely Argomulyo and Wilis. Subplot is the time application of fungi L. lecanii with conidia densities of 107 and 109/ml. The results showed that  Argomulyo more preferred by B. tabaci compared Wilis variety. Nine times application of L. lecanii using 107/ml conidia densities were applied every week the started on 14-70 days after planting (DAP) was able to suppress of B. tabaci in the field. However, planting Wilis varieties with nine times application of  L. lecanii  using conidia densities  109/ml  were recommended. Controlling of B. tabaci on Argomulyo variety use L. lecanii or lamda sihalotrin showed no significantly due to the result seed weight is lower than compare with Wilis untreated. Application of L. lecanii use with the highest conidia densities (109/ml), no negative effect to the survival on survival of various predators; i.e. Coccinella sp., Oxyopes sp. and Paederus sp. Therefore, L. lecanii most likely to be used as an effective biopesticide agent to control of B. tabaci and as substitute to chemical insecticides.


Arioglu HH, Ozgur AF, & Isler N. 1989a. Influence of soybean pubescence type and density on whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn). resistance. World Soybean Research Conference IV Proceedings III. 1235-1240. Argentina.

Arioglu HH, Ozgur AF, & Isler N. 1989b. The effect of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) damage on yield and yield components in double-cropped soybean production. Soybean Genet. Newslett. 16: 57–61.

Botha J, Poole M, & Hardie D. 2007. Silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Biotype B) with reference to related whiteflies in Western Australia. Farmnote 35/2004. Department of Agriculture and Food. www.agric.wa.gov.au[6 September 2011].

Butter NS, Vir BK, Kaur G, Singh TH, & Raheja RK. 1990. Biochemical basis on resistance to whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in cotton. Trop. Agric. 69: 119–122.

Byrne DN & Miller WB. 1990. Carbohydrate and amino acid composition of phloem sap and honeydew produced by Bemisia tabaci. J. Insect Physiol. 36(6): 433–439.

Byrne FJ, Castle S, Prabhaker N, & Toascano NC. 2003. Biochemical study of resistance to imidacloprid in B biotype Bemisia tabaci from Guatemala. Pest Manag. Sci 59(3): 347–352.

Charnley AK. 2003a. Fungal pathogens of insects from mechanisms of pathogenicity to host defense. Department of Biology & Biochemistry University of Bath. http://www.bath.ac.uk/expertice/ showperson.php?employeenumber=573 [2 September 2011].

Charnley AK. 2003b. Fungal pathogens of insects: Cuticle degrading enzymes and toxins. Adv. Bot. Res. 40: 241–321.

Davidson EW, Segura BJ, Steele T, & Hendrix DL. 1994. Microorgaisms influence the composition of honeydew produced by the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia argentifolii. J. Insect Physiol. 40(12): 1069–1076.

Denholm I, Cahill M, Byrne F, & Devonshire. 1996. Progress with documenting and combating insecticide resistance in Bemisia. In: Gerling D. Mayer R. (ed.). Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage, Control and Management, Intercept, Andover UK (1996). Pp: 577–603.

Gindin G, Barash I, Hariri N, & Raccah B. 1994. Effect of endotoxic compounds isolated from Verticillium lecanii on the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Phytoparasitica 22(3): 189–196.

Goettel MS, Hajek AE, Siegel JP, & Evans HC. 2001. Safety of fungal biocontrol agents. In: Butt, T.M., J.W. Jackson & N. Magan, (Eds.). Fungi as Biocontrol Agents (Progress, Problems and Potential). pp: 347–376. CABI Publishing.

Gulluoglu L, Arioglu H, & Kurt C. 2010a. Field evaluation of soybean cultivars for resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn). Infestations. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 5(7): 555–560.

Gulluoglu L, Kurt C, Arioglu H, Zaimoglu B, & Aslan V. 2010b. The researches on soybean (Glycine max Merr.) variety breeding for resistance to whitefly in Turkey. Turk. J. Field Crops. 15(2): 123–127.

Henneberry TJ, Jech LF, & da la Torre T. 2002. Effets of cotton plant water stress on Bemisia tabaci strain B (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) honeydew production. Southwest. Entomol. 27(2):117–133.

Hendrix DL, Wel Y, & Leggett JE. 1992. Homopteran honeydew sugar composition is determined by both insect and plant species. Comp Biochem Physiol 101B: 23–27.

Hilje L & Morales FJ. 2008. Whitefly bioecology and management in Latin America. In: Capinera, J (ed). Encyclopedia of entomology. pp.4250–4260. Springer.

Horowitz AR & Ishaya I. 1996. Chemical control of Bemisia tabaci, management and application. In: Geerling D. & Meyer RT. (Eds.). Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage, Control and management. pp.537–556. Intercept, Andover, Hants, UK.

Isaacs R, Byrne DN, & Hendrix DL. 1998. Feeding rates and carbohydrate metabolism by Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on different quality phloem saps. Physiol. Entomol. 23(3): 241–248.

Islam MdT & Shunxiang R. 2009. Effect of sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) leaf. J. Pest Sci. 82(3): 211–215.

Junior ALB, Campos ZR, Lourencao AL, & Campos AR. 2007. Adult attractiveness and oviposition preference of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) B-biotype in cotton genotypes. Sci. Agric. 64(2): 147–151.

Kim JJ, Kim KC, & Roberts DW. 2005. Impact of the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii on development of on aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 88(3): 254–256.

Koike M, Kodama T, Kikuchi A, Okabe M, Kuramoti K, & Saito Y. 2005. Effects of Verticillium lecanii (Lecanicillium lecanii) against two-spoted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and its natural enemy Phytoseiulus persimilis. 38th Annual meeting of the society for Invertebrate Pathology. August 7–11, 2005 Anchorage, Alaska, USA.

Lam WKF & Pedigo LP. 2001. Effect of trichome density on soybean pod feeding by adult bean beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J Econ. Entomol. 94(6): 1459–1463.

Lambert AL, McPherson RM, & Herzog GA. 1997. Field evaluations of fourteen soybean genotypes for resistence to whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestations. J Econ. Entomol. 90(2): 658–662.

Lourencao AL, Alves AC, Melo AMT, & Valle GE. 2011. Development of leaf silvering in squash cultivars infested by silverleaf whitefly. Hortic. Bras. 29(1): 112–116.

Mansaray A & Sundufu AJ. 2009. Oviposition, development and survivorship of the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci on soybean, Glycine max and the garden bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. J. Insect Sci. 9: 1.

McAuslane HJ. 1996. The influence of pubescence on ovipositional preference of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on soybean. Environ Entomol 25: 834–841.

Murakoshi S, Ichinoe M, Suzuki A, Kanaoka M, Isogai A, & Tamura A. 2005. Presence of toxic substance in fungus bodies of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Verticillium lecanii. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 13(2): 97–102.

Musa PD & Ren SX. 2005. Development and reproduction of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on three bean species. Insect Sci. 12(1): 25–30.

Park H & Kim K. 2010. Selection of Lecanicillium strains with high virulence against developmental stages of Bemisia tabaci. Mycobiol. 38(3): 210–214.

Perez PT, Clanzio SR, & Palmer RG. 2009. Inheritance of resistance to whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in soybean. In: Proceedings Soybean Research World Conference. August 10-15, 2009, Beijing, China. Poster No.325.

Perring TM. 2001. The Bemisia tabaci species complex. Crop Prot. 20(9): 725.

Prayogo Y. 2009. Kajian cendawan entomopatogen Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm.) (Viegas) Zare & Gams sebagai agens hayati untuk mengendalikan telur hama pengisap polong kedelai Riptortus linearis (F.) (Hemiptera: Alydidae). [Disertasi]. Sekolah Pascasarjana, Departemen Proteksi Tanaman, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Ren SX, Wang ZZ, Qiu BL, & Xiao Y. 2001. The pest status of Bemisia tabaci in China and non-chemical control strategies. Insect Sci. 8: 279–288.

Ren SX, Ali S, Huang Z, & Wu JH. 2010. Lecanicillium muscarium as microbial insecticide against whitefly and its interaction with other natural enemies. Current Res, Technol and Educ Tropics in Appl Mirobiol and Microbial Biotechnol: 339–348.

Sidhu JS, Mann RS, & Butter NS. 2009. Deleterious effects of cotton leaf curf virus on longevity and fecundity of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). J. Entomol. 6: 62–66.

Tengkano W & Bedjo. 2002. Potensi Oxyopes javanus Thorell (Oxyopidae: Araneae) Memangsa Hama Utama Kedelai. Seminar Nasional Perkembangan Terkini Pengendalian Hayati di Bidang Pertanian dan Kesehatan; Bogor. Institut Pertanian Bogor. 5 September 2002.

Ullah F, Baloch AF, & Badshah H. 2006. Studies on varietal resistance and chemical control of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) in cotton. J. Biol. Sci. 6(2): 261–264.

Wang L, Huang J, You M, & Liu B. 2005. Effects of toxins from two strains of Verticillium lecanii (Hyphomycetes) on bioattributes of a predatory ladybeetle, Delphastus catalinae (Col.: Coccinellidae). J.Appl. Entomol. 129(1): 32–38.

Wang L, Huang J, You M, Guan X, & Liu B. 2007. Toxicity and feeding deterence of crude toxin extracts of Lecanicillium (Verticillium) lecanii (Hyphomycetes) against sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Pest Manag. Sci. 63(4): 381–387.

Wilson FD, Flint HM, Stapp BR, & NJ Parks. 1993. Evaluation of cultivars, germplasm lines, and species of Gossypium for Resistance to Biotype “B” of Sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 86(6): 1857–1862.



Read Counter : 371 times
PDF Download : 182 times