INCIDENCE DYNAMIC OF POD ROT DISEASE OF COCOA CLONES IN LAMPUNG, INDONESIA

Rusdi Evizal, Sugiatno ,, Ivayani ,, Hidayat Pujisiswanto, Lestari Wibowo, Fembriarti Erry Prasmatiwi

Abstract


Incidence dynamic of pod rot disease of cocoa clones in Lampung, Indonesia. The declining of production and productivity of cocoa in Indonesia might due to pests and diseases attacks and planting unselected clones. Dynamic of pod rot incidence was important to plan pest controlling. To study dynamic incidence of some cocoa clones, a research was conducting in Pesawaran District, a centre of cocoa production in Lampung. A farmer cocoa plot under agro-forestry system was selected which had been upgrading in 2014 by pruning and side-grafting with national clones including Sul 1, MCC 1, MCC 2, ICCRI 7 and selected local clone named T1, T2, and T3. The results showed that pod rot incidence occurred along the year of observation. For immature pod, pod rot incidence was dynamic and varied among months and clones. There was high pod rot incidence every months for particular clone. National clone Sul1 and local clone T3 exhibited more tolerant to pod rot disease than other clones. Clones Sul1 and T3 also produced more pod than others. High incidence of pod rot occurred on fruit stage of cherelle (incidence 38.7%) and small pod (incidence 18.8%) that well known as cherelle wilt symptom.

Keywords


cherelle, local clones, cocoa, incidence, pod rot, tolerant

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acebo-Guerrero Y, Hernandez-Rodriguez A, Heydrich-Perez M, El Jaziri M, & Hernandez-Lauzardo AN. 2012. Management of black pod rot in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): a review. Fruits. 67(1): 41-48.

Adjaloo, CMK, Oduro W, & Banful BK. 2012. Floral phenology of Upper Amazon Cocoa Trees: Implications for reproduction and productivity of cacao. ISRN Agronomy. Doi:10.5402/2012/461674.

Adu-Acheampong R, Sarfo JE, Appiah EF, Nkansah A, Awudzi G, Obeng E, Tagbor P & Sem R. 2015. Strategy for insect pest control in cocoa. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 6(6): 416-423.

Akrofi AY. 2015. Phytophthora megakarya: A review on its status as a pathogen on cacao in West Africa. African Crop Science Journal. 23(1): 67-87.

Anita-Sari I & Susilo AW. 2013. Stability in Flowering, Flushing, and Fruiting Characters of 21 Potential Cacao Clones in ICCRI Collection. Pelita Perkebunan. 29(2): 82 – 92.

Anita-Sari I & Susilo AW. 2015. Phenology of Flowering and Pod Maturity on Some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Clones. Pelita Perkebunan. 31(2): 73-80.

Dinarti D, Susilo AW, Meinhardt LW, Ji K, Lambert A, Motilal LA, Mischke S, & Zhang D. 2015. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers. Breeding Science. 65(5): 438–446.

Danial D, Fiana Y, Handayani F, & Hidayanto M. 2015. Increased the production and quality of cocoa through Gernas activity in East Kalimantan. In: Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Pitoyo A, Hernawan UE, Sutomo, Widiastuti A, Raqib SM (Eds). Pros. Sem. Nas. Masy. Biodiv. Indon. 1(5): 1203-1210. Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia. Surakarta.

Deberdt P, Mfegue CV, Tondje PR, Bon MC, Ducamp M, Hurard C, Begoude BAD, Ndoumbe-Nkeng M, Hebbar PK, & Cilas C. 2008. Impact of environmental factors, chemical fungicide and biological control on cacao pod production dinamics and black pod disease (Phytophthora megakarya) in Cameroon. Biological Control. 44(2): 149-159.

Directorate General of Estate Crops. 2016. Tree Crop Estate Statistics of Indonesia. 2015-2017 Cocoa. Ministry of Agriculture. Jakarta.

Efombagn MIB, Marelli JP, Ducamp M, Cilas C, Nyasse S, & Vefonge D. 2004. Effect of fruiting traits on the field resistance of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) clones to Phytophthora megakarya. J. Phytopathology. 152(10): 557–562.

Evizal R, Sumaryo, Sa’diyah N, Prasetyo J, Prasmatiwi FE, & Nurmayasari I. 2016. Farm performance and problem area of cocoa plantation in Lampung Province, Indonesia. In: Wulandari C, Rini MV, Kaskoyo H, Saputra H, Riani WH, Aristoteles, Pamungkas A (Eds). Conference Proceeding the USR International Seminar on Food Security. pp. 193-205. University of Lampung. Bandar Lampung.

Evizal R, Prasmatiwi FE, Pasaribu MC, Ivayani, Wibowo L, Rahmawati W, & Karyanto A. 2018. Competitive and sustainable production of cocoa in Tanggamus, Lampung Province, Indonesia. In: Haryanto A, Triyono S, Waluyo S, Asmara S, Suhandy D, Telaumbanua M, Sugianti C, Rahmawati W, Saputra TW (Eds). Proc. ISAE Lampung International Seminar. pp. 705-712. University of Lampung. Bandar Lampung.

Guest D. 2007. Black pod: Diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield. Phytophathology. 97(12): 1650-1653.

Hoopen GMT, Deberdt P, Mbenoun M, & Cilas C. 2012. Modelling cacao pod growth: implications for disease control. Ann. Appl. Biol. 160(3): 260–272.

Iwaro AD, Butler DR, & Eskes AB. 2006. Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53(1): 99–109.

McMohan P & Purwantara A. 2004. Phytophthora on cocoa. In Drenth, A. and Guest, D.I. (Eds). Diversity and Management of Phytophthora in Southeast Asia. pp. 104-115. ACIAR. Canberra.

McMahon P, Purung H, Lambert S, Mulia S, Nurlaila, Susilo AW, Sulistyowati E, Sukamto S, Israel M, Saftar A, Amir A, Purwantara A, Iswanto A, Guest D, Keane P. 2015. Testing local cocoa selections in three provinces in Sulawesi: (i) Productivity and resistance to cocoa pod borer and Phytophthora pod rot (black pod). Crop Protection. 70: 28-39.

Melnick RL, Strem MD, Crozier J, Sicher RC, & Bailey BA. 2013. Physiological and Molecular. Plant Pathology. 84:153-162.

Motamayor JC, Lachenaud P, Mota JWS, Loor R, & Kuhn DN. 2008. Geographic and genetic population differentiation of the Amazonian chocolate tree (Theobroma cacao L). Plos One. 3(10): 1-8.

Niemenak N, Cilas C, Rohsius C, Bleiholder H, Meier U, & Lieberei R. 2010. Phenological growth stages of cacao plants (Theobroma sp.): codification and description according to the BBHC scale. Ann. Appl. Biol. 156(1): 13-24.

Rubiyo & Siswanto. 2012. Improving production and cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L) development in Indonesia. Buletin Ristri. 3(1): 33-48.

Saidah, Negara A, & Sahadi. 2015. Study on adaptation of several clones as the side-cleft-grafting material of cocoa in Central Sulawesi. In: Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Pitoyo A, Hernawan UE, Sutomo, Widiastuti A, Raqib SM (Eds). Pros. Sem. Nas. Masy. Biodiv. Indon. 1(7): 1661-1665.

Susilo AW, Anita-Sari I, & Imran. 2015. Yield performance of locally selected cocoa clones in North Luwu. Pelita Perkebunan. 31(3): 152-162.

Rubiyo & Amaria W. 2013. Resistance of cocoa to black pod disease (Phytophthora palmivora Butl.). Perspektif. 12(1): 23-26.

Prawoto AA. 2014. Patterns of flushing, cherelle wilt, and accuracy of yield forecasting of some cocoa clones. Pelita Perkebunan. 30(2): 100-114.

Thevenin J, Rossi V, Ducamp M, Condina V, & Lachenaud P. 2012. Numerous clones resistant to Phytophthora palivora in the Guiana genetic group of Theobroma cacao L. Plos One. 7(7): 1-6.

Vanegtern B, Rogers M & Nelson S. 2015. Black Pod Rot of Cacao Caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Plant Disease Department. University of Hawaii.

Zhang D & Mutilal L. 2016. Origin, dispersal, and current global distribution of cacao genetic diversity. In: Bailey BA & Meinhardt LW (Eds.). Cacao Disease. pp. 1-31. Springer. Switzerland.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.23960/j.hptt.218105-111

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


web
counter

View My Stats

Statistics Counter since 15 January 2016

Flag Counter
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.