PENGUJIAN TRICHODERMA SP. SEBAGAI PENGENDALI HAWAR DAUN BIBIT KAKAO YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH PHYTHOPTHORA PALMIVORA

Authors

  • Sutarman Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.23960/j.hptt.11745-52

Keywords:

cocoa seedlings, injury index, P. palmivora, Trichoderma

Abstract

Analysist for Trichoderma sp. as the controller of the cocoa seedlings leaf blight which caused by Phythopthora palmivora. This study aims to determine: survival and ability to live of Trichoderma sp. isolates TCN-Klp supported by predisposing wounding or without wounding the leaves as well as the ability to suppress P. palmivora inoculated on the leaves of cocoa seedlings with and without wounding the leaves before inoculation. The research conducted at the Microbiology Laboratory and Greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo on March-July 2015. There were two kinds of experiments: inoculation without wounding the leaves (1st experiment) and inoculation with wounding leaves (2nd experiment). Both of them were done by inoculation treatment: pathogens, Trichoderma, pathogens and Trichoderma simultaneously, then pathogens and incubated for 2x24 hours then inoculated. Both kinds of experiments were arranged in a complete randomize design (CRD) with 3 times of replication for 1st experiment and 4 times of replication for 2nd experiment. The data of result was analyzed by ANOVA followed by 5% test level of Duncan test. The results showed that the isolates TCN-Klp of Trichoderma sp: (i) had own survival and ability to live well in the leaf surface without injury, and (ii) was able to suppress pathogens by inoculation simultaneously, which was preceded and precede the pathogens with a gap of 24 hours on with and without wounding leaves at 10 days after inoculation.

References

Al-Taweil HI, Osman MB, Hamid AA, & Wan-Yussof WM. 2009. Optimizing of Trichoderma viride cultivation in submerged state fermentation. Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6(7): 1284–1288.

Aylor DE, Schmale DG. Shields EJ, Newcomb M, & Nappo CJ. 2011. Tracking the potato late blight pathogen in the atmosphere using unmanned aerial vehicles and Lagrangian modeling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151(2): 251–260.

Brylinska M, Sobkowiak S, Stefanczyk E, & Sliwka J. 2016. Potato cultivation system affects population structure of Phytophthora infestans. Fungal Ecol. 20: 132-143.

Bal U & Altintas S. 2008. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum on lettuce in protected cultivation. J. Cent. Eur. Agric. 9(1): 63-70.

Chen W, Djama ZR, Coffey MD, Martin FN, Bilodeau GJ, Radmer L, Denton G, & Lévesque CA. 2013. Membrane-based oligonucleotide array developed from multiple markers for the detection of many Phytophthora species. Phytopathology 103 (1): 43-54.

Davidson JM, Patterson HA, Wickland AC, Fichtner EJ, & Rizzo DM. 2011. Forest type influences transmission of Phytophthora ramorum in California oak woodlands. Phytopathology 101 (4): 492-501.

Hajianfar R, Kolics B, Cernak I, Wolf I, Polgar Z, & Taller J. 2016. Expression of biotic stress response genes to Phytophthora infestans inoculation in White Lady, a potato cultivar with race-specific resistance to late blight. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 93: 22-28.

Harman GE, Herrera-Estrella AH, Horwitz BA, & Lorito M. 2012. Special issue: Trichoderma – from basic biology to biotechnology. Microbiol. 158: 1–2.

Kroon LP, Brouwer H, de Cock AW, & Govers F. 2012. The genus Phytophthora anno 2012. Phytopathology 102(4): 348-364.

Larran S, Simón MR, Moreno MV, Siurana MPS, & Perelló A. 2016. Endophytes from wheat as biocontrol agents against tan spot disease. Biol. Control 92: 17–23.

Matarese F, Sarrocco S, Gruber S, Seidl-Seiboth V, & Vannacci G. 2012. Biocontrol of Fusarium head blight: interactions between Trichoderma and mycotoxigenic Fusarium. Microbiology. 158: 98–106.

Metz B, Seidl-Seiboth V, Haarmann T, Kopchinskiy A, Lorenz P, Seiboth B, & Kubicek CP. 2011. Expression of biomass-degrading enzymes Is a major event during conidium development in Trichoderma reesei. Eukaryot. Cell 10(11): 1527-1535.

Mukherjee PK, Horwitz BA, Herrera-Estrella A, Schmoll M, & Kenerley CM. 2013. Trichoderma research in the genome era. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 51: 105-129.

Nurudin MJ & Sutarman. 2014. Potensi Trichoderma sp. sebagai pengendali Phytopthora palmivora penyebab hawar daun bibit kakao. J. Nabatia 11 (1): 21-28.

Omann MR, Lehner S, Rodrý´guez CE, Brunner K, & Zeilinger S. 2012. The seven-transmembrane receptor Gpr1 governs processes relevant for the antagonistic interaction of Trichoderma atroviride with its host. Microbiology. 158(pt1): 107–118.

Quesada-Ocampo LM, Granke LL, Mercier MR, Olsen J, & Hausbeck MK. 2011. Investigating the genetic structure of Phytophthora capsici populations. Phytopathology 101 (9): 1061-1073.

Saravanakumar K, Yu C, Dou K, Wang M, Li Y, & Chen J. 2016. Synergistic effect of Trichoderma-derived antifungal metabolites and cell wall degrading enzymes on enhanced biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. Biol. Control 94: 37–46.

Siddiquee S, Cheong BE, Taslima K, Kausar H, & Hasan MM. 2012. Separation and identification of volatile compounds from liquid cultures of Trichoderma harzianum by GC-MS using three different capillary columns. Journal of Chromatographic Science 50(4): 358–367.

Sikora K, Verstappen E, Mendes O, Schoen C, Ristaino J, & Bonants P. 2012. A universal microarray detection method for identification of multiple Phytophthora spp. using padlock probes. Phytopathology 102 (6): 635-645.

Small IM, Joseph L, & Fry WE. 2015. Development and implementation of the BlightPro decision support system for potato and tomato late blight management. Comput. Electronics Agric. 115: 57–65.

Valenzuela NL, Angel DN, Ortiz DT, Rosas RA, García CFO, & Santos MO. 2015. Biological control of anthracnose by postharvest application of Trichoderma spp. on maradol papaya fruit. Biol. Control 91: 88–93.

Vargas Gil S, Pastorb S, & March GJ. 2009. Quantitative isolation of biocontrol agents Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes from soil with culture media. Microbiol. Res. 164(2): 196–205.

Verma M, Brar SK, Tyagi RD, Surampalli RY, & Valero JR. 2007. Antagonistic fungi, Trichoderma spp.: panoply of biological control. Biochemistry Engineering J. 37(1): 1-20.

Vinale F, Sivasithamparam K, Ghisalberti EL, Marra R, Barbetti MJ, Li H, Woo SL, & Lorito M. 2008. A novel role for Trichoderma secondary metabolites in the interactions with plants. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 72: 80–86.

You J, Zhang J, Wu M, Yang L, Chen W, & Li G. 2016. Multiple criteria-based screening of Trichoderma isolates for biological control of Botrytis cinerea on tomato. Biological Control 101: 31–38.

Zhang M, Liu JM, Zhao JL, Li N, Chen RD, Xie KB, Zhang WJ, Feng KP, Yan Z, Wang N, & Dai JG. 2016. Two new diterpenoids from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. Xy24 isolated from mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum. Chinese Chemical Letters 27(6): 957–960.

Downloads

Published

2017-01-17
Read Counter : 713 times
PDF Download : 404 times