Abundance of arthropod in the various intensity of pesticide applied on shallots crop Local Palu

Main Article Content

Kasman Jaya
Sylvia Sjam
Ade Rosmana
Untung Surapati Tresnaputra
Sri Sudewi


Excessive use of pesticides confers several ecological and environmental consequences. In this research, we evaluated arthropod occurrence on shallot crops in Palu Valley, Central Sulawesi as an impact of pesticide application in different frequencies. Almost all farmers used synthetic pesticides for controlling pests and diseases where 46.7%, 43.3%, 10.0% of them applied in high, moderate, and low frequency, respectively. By comparing to the last application, the first reduced arthropod diversity index, evenness index, and abundance by 13.8%, 6.7%, and 70.6%, while the second by 7.3%, 2.3%, and 33.5%, respectively. Analysis of the dynamic abundance of pests and natural enemies in seven weeks observation indicated that the pests abundance at low and moderate levels was no different. Whereas predator abundance at low frequency was significantly different with moderate and high rate and between the last two not distinct and the presence of parasitoids was not observed at all, it means the natural enemies were susceptible to pesticides. These data showed the negative impact of pesticides application to arthropods including pests resistance and natural enemies lost; therefore it is necessary to minimize the use of pesticides and integrated pests.

Article Details

How to Cite
Jaya, K.; Ratnawati; Sjam, S.; Rosmana, A.; Tresnaputra, U. S.; Sudewi, S. Abundance of Arthropod in the Various Intensity of Pesticide Applied on Shallots Crop Local Palu. J Trop Plant Pests Dis 2022, 22, 33-40.



Bagyaraj DJ, Nethravathi CJ, & Nitin KS. 2016. Soil biodiversity and arthropods: role in soil fertility. In: Chakravarthy AK & Sridhara S (Eds.). Economic and Ecological Significance of Arthropods in Diversified Ecosystems. pp. 17–51. Springer Science and Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1524-3_2

Basuki RS. 2011. Farmers’ knowledge and effectiveness of insecticide uses by farmers in controlling Spodoptera exigua on shallots in Brebes and Cirebon. Ind. J. Agri. 4(1): 22–32.

Cloyd RA. 2006. Compatibility of insecticides with natural enemies to control pests of greenhouses and conservatories. J. Entomol. Sci. 41(3): 189–197. https://doi.org/10.18474/0749-8004-41.3.189

Culliney TW. 2013. Role of arthropods in maintaining soil fertility. Agriculture. 3(4): 629–659. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture3040629

Desneux N, Decourtye A, & Delpuech JM. 2007. The sublethal effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 52: 81–106. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.52.110405.091440

Dhaliwal GS, Singh R, & Chhillar BS. 2006. Essentials of Agricultural Entomology. Kalyani Publishers, India.

Feyereisen R, Dermauw W, & Van Leeuwen T. 2015. Genotype to phenotype, the molecular and physiological dimensions of resistance in arthropods. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 121: 61–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2015.01.004

Joko T, Anggoro S, Sunoko HR, & Rachmawati S. 2017. Pesticides usage in the soil quality degradation potential in Wanasari Subdistrict, Brebes, Indonesia. Appl. Environ. Soil Sci. 2017: 5896191. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5896191

Jones CG, Lawton JH, & Shachak M. 1994. Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos. 69(3): 373–386. https://doi.org/10.2307/3545850

Johnson NF & Triplehorn CA. 2005. Borror and DeLong’s Introduction to the Study of Insects 7th Edition. Cengage Learning, Inc., United States.

Kliot A & Ghanim M. 2012. Fitness costs associated with insecticide resistance. Pest Manag. Sci. 68(11): 1431–1437. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3395

Krebs CJ. 2000. Ecological Methodology Second Edition. Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park, California.

Lavelle P, Lattaud C, Trigo D, & Barois I. 1995. Mutualism and biodiversity in soils. Plant Soil. 170: 23–33. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02183052

Liu N. 2015. Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes: impact, mechanisms, and research directions. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 60: 537–559. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-010814-020828

Lu Y, Wu K, Jiang Y, Guo Y, & Desneux N. 2012. Widespread adoption of Bt cotton and insecticide decrease promotes biocontrol services. Nature. 487: 362–365. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11153

Maskar, Chatijah, & Asni A. 1999. Pengujian Paket Teknologi Budidaya Bawang Merah Varietas Lokal di Lahan Kering [Testing the Technology Package for Local Varieties of Shallot Cultivation in Dry Land]. Biromaru Agricultural Technology Research Center. pp. 25–28.

Nauen R. 2007. Insecticide resistance in disease vectors of public health importance. Pest Manag. Sci. 63(7): 628–633. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1406

Panini M, Manicardi GC, Moores GD, & Mazzoni E. 2016. An overview of the main pathways of metabolic resistance in insects. Invertebr. Surviv. J. 13(1): 326–335.

Ratnawati & Jaya K. 2020. Keanekaragaman arthropda pada pertanaman bawang merah dengan intensitas aplikasi pestisida yang berbeda di Kabupaten Sigi [Diversity of arthropodes in onion plantation with different pesticide application intensities in Sigi Regency]. J. Agrotech 10(2): 54–59. https://doi.org/10.31970/agrotech.v10i2.53

Reflinaldon. 2009. Penggunaan Pestisida dan Dampaknya Terhadap Keanekaragaman Hayati serta Upaya Restorasi Agroekosistim di Kawasan Sentra Sayuran Kecamatan Lembah Gumanti Sumatera Barat [The Use of Pesticides and Their Impact on Biodiversity as Well As Efforts to Restore Agroecosystems in The Vegetable Center Area, Lembah Gumanti District, West Sumatra]. National Strategic Grant Research Report. University of Andalas Padang.

Rivai MA. 1995. Keanekaragaman Jamur di Sekitar Kita: Sebuah Pengantar Mikologi Tropik [Fungal Diversity Around us: An Introduction to Tropical Mycology]. Indonesian Institute of Sciences and Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.

Semangun H. 1989. Penyakit Penyakit Tanaman Hortikultura di Indonesia [Horticultural Plant Diseases in Indonesia]. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.

Stapel JO, Cortesero AM, & Lewis WJ. 2000. Disruptive sublethal effects of insecticides on biological control: Altered foraging ability and life span of a parasitoid after feeding on extrafloral nectar of cotton treated with systemic insecticides. Biol. Control. 17(3): 243–249. https://doi.org/10.1006/bcon.1999.0795

Shahabuddin, Anshary A, & Gellang A. 2012. Tingkat serangan dan jenis lalat pengorok daun pada tiga varietas lokal bawang merah di Lembah Palu, Sulawesi Tengah [The level of attack and types of leafminer flies on three local varieties of shallots in the Palu Valley, Central Sulawesi]. J. HPT Tropika. 12(2): 153–161. https://doi.org/10.23960/j.hptt.212153-161

Waryanto B, Chozin MA, Dadang, & Putri EIK. 2014. Environmental efficiency analysis of shallot farming: A stochastic frontier translog regression approach. J. Biol. Agric. Healthc. 4(19): 87–100.

WHO. 2005. The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification: 2004. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Wright DJ & Verkerk RHJ. 1995. Integration of chemical and biological control systems for arthropods: Evaluation in a multitrophic context. Pest Manag. Sci. 44(3): 207–218. https://doi.org/10.1002/PS.2780440302

Zhang W, Ricketts TH, Kremen C, Carney K, & Swinton SM. 2007. Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecol. Econ. 64(2): 253–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.02.024