Main Article Content
The potency of calabur tree (Muntingia calabura) leaf extract to control anthracnose of papaya fruit. The papaya anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the factors causing a decrease in papaya production. The research aimed to determine the abilty of calabur tree leaf extract in inhibiting growth, sporulation, and viability of C. gloeosporioides as well as incubation period and disease severity on the fruit of papaya. The experiment was arranged in a nested design, the concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60%) were nested within the calabur tree leaf extract methods (boiling and fractionation). The results showed that boiled calabur leaves extract was more effective than fractionated calabur leaves extract to inhibit growth of C. gloeosporioides. Boiled calabur leaves extract and fractionated leaves extract at various concentration showed capability to inhibit the growth, sporulation and viability of C. gloeosporioides. Boiled calabur leaves extract at different concentration levels were able to suppress disease development of papaya anthracnose disease on papaya fruit. The higher concentration of calabur leaves extract, are more effective to inhibit C. gloeosporioides.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Carvalho FP. 2017. Pesticides, environment, and food safety. Food Energy Secur. 6(2): 48â€“60.
Damalas CA. 2009. Understanding benefits and risks of pesticide use. Sci. Res. Essays. 4(10): 945â€“ 949.
Dougoud J, Toepfer S, Bateman M, & Jenner WH. 2019. Efficacy of homemade botanical insecticides based on traditional knowledge. A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 39: 37.
Efri, Aeny TN, Maryono T, & Ronalddi E. 2017. Pengaruh fraksi ekstrak daun pacar cina (Aglaia odorata L.) terhadap pertumbuhan Colletotrichum capsici penyebab penyakit antraknosa pada cabai (Capsicum annuum L.) secara in vitro. J. HPT Tropika. 17(2):179â€“184.
GÃ³rniak I, Bartoszewski R, & KrÃ³liczewski J. 2019. Comprehensive review of antimicrobial activities of plant flavonoids. Phytochem. Rev. 18(1): 241â€“ 272.
Haggag WM & Singer S. 2013. First report of Colletotrichum capsici causing pre and postharvest anthracnose on papaya in Egypt. IJEIT. 3(6): 151â€“152.
Harborne JB. 1984. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Springer, Dordrecht.
Hikal WM, Baeshen RS, & Said-Al Ahl HAH. 2017. Botanical insecticide as simple extractives for pest control. Cogent Biol. 3(1): 1404274.
Kamble KJ, Thakor NJ, Sonawane SP, & Sawant AA. 2016. Review on need of utilization of biopesticides in agriculture for safe environment. IJETSR. 3(8): 1â€“13.
Khan ZS & Nasreen S. 2010. Phytochemical analysis, antifungal activity and mode of action of methanol extracts from plants against pathogens. J. Agric. Technol. 6(4): 793â€“805.
Maeda C & Nelson S. 2014. Anthracnose of papaya in Hawaiâ€˜i. The College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR). University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Hawai'i.
Mazu TK, Bricker BA, Flores-Rozas H, & Ablordeppey. 2016. The mechanistic targets of antifungal agents: an overview. Mini Rev. Med. Chem. 16(7): 555â€“578.
Nur YM, Efri, & Suharjo R. 2017. Efektivitas ekstrak daun krinyu (Chromolaena odorata) dan teki (Cyperus rotundus) terhadap pertumbuhan Colletotrichum musae patogen antraknosa pada pisang (Musa paradisiaca L.). J. Agrotek Tropika. 6(1): 39â€“43.
Puspitasari D & Desrita. 2019. The Influence of the boiling method to phytochemicals test toward of mangrove Excoecaria agallocha leaves. Acta Aquatica: Aquatic Sciences Journal. 6(1): 28â€“31.
Rajesh R, Jaivel N, & Marimuthu P. 2014. Antifungal metabolite fromMuntingia calabura root against early leaf blight of tomato. J. Med. Plant Res. (17): 646â€“656.
Siddiqua A, Premakuri KB, Sultana R, Vithya, & Savitha. Antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of Muntingia calabura by colorimetry. Int. J. Chemtech Res. 2(1): 205â€“ 208.
Simko I & Piepho HP. 2012. The area under the disease progress stairs: calculation, advantage, and application. Phytopathology. 102(4): 381â€“389.
Singh G & Kumar P. 2013. In vitro biopesticide effect of alkaloids and flavonoids of some plants against Fusarium oxysporum. Arch. Phytopathol. Pflanzenschutz. 46(10): 1236â€“1245.
Surjowardojo P, Sarwiyono, Thohari I, & Ridhowi A. 2014. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemicals analysis of Muntingia calabura. Journal of Biology Agriculture and Healthcare. 4(16): 84â€“ 89.
Tagousop CN, Tamokou JD, Kengne IC, Ngnokam D, & Voutquenne-Nazabadioko L. 2018. Antimicrobial activities of saponins from Melanthera elliptica and their synergistic effects with antibiotics against pathogenic phenotypes. Chem. Cent. J. 12(1): 1â€“9.
Tripathi YC. 1998. Phytopesticides-an ecofriendly approach for pest control. Indian J. Environ. Sci. 2(2): 63â€“71.
Zakaria ZA, Mustapha S, Sulaiman MR, Jais AMM, Somchit MN, & Abdullah FC. 2007. The antinociceptive action of aqueous extract from
Muntingia calabura leaves: the role of opioid receptors. Med. Princ. Pract. 16(2): 130â€“136.